A number of factors expose our body to sinus infection, but, believe it or not, the most common would be through a common cold or in medical parlance an upper respiratory infection which produces swelling and congestion in the lining of the nose. The congestion obstructs the openings of the sinus and diminishes ventilation and drainage, and when the condition remains unattended, sinus infection develops. Antibiotics are prescribed to control infection. Sinus infection antibiotics are, however, applied depending on the nature of the infection.
Here is a list of available sinus infection antibiotics:
1. Beta-Lactams. Penicillins and cephalosporins are two of the most popular beta-lactam antibiotics which are known to exhibit similar chemical features. The main function of beta-lactams is to obstruct the cell walls of the bacteria responsible for causing the infection. For sinusitis, the most prescribed antibiotic is amoxicillin. Cephalosporins, on the other hand, are broad-spectrum antibiotics classified into three-generations. First generation cephalosporins include cephalexin and cefadroxil; second-and third-generation cephalosporins include cefuroxime ad cefixime.
2. Fluoroquinolones. Fluoroquinolones are also called quinolones and works by interfering with the genetic material of bacteria which prevents their multiplication. Ciprofloxacin was the first quinolone developed, although it is the newer quinolones which are most effective in dealing with sinusitis causing bacteria.
3. Ketolides. The first antibiotic developed under the ketolide class is Telithromycin, with the brand name Ketek. It may be applied to various diseases including sinusitis, community-acquired pneumonia, and chronic obstructive lung disease. Ketolides are considered as a promising medication for bacterial strains which have developed resistance for most antibiotics, but its main disadvantage is its potential as a liver toxin.
4. Lincosamide. The sinus infection antibiotic Lincosamide works against anaerobic bacteria which causes sinusitis, prevents bacteria from multiplying, and is also effective against Streptococcus pneumoniae. It causes diarrhea as a common side effect.
5. Macrolides and azalides. Macrolides and azalides are sinus infection antibiotics generally used against bacterial sinusitis. These antibiotics have proven efficacy for patients which have allergies to penicillin and have exhibited mild or moderate symptoms. The function of these antibiotics is to interfere with the genetics of the bacteria causing the infection. Examples are erythromycin and azithromycin. Clarithromycin provides anti-inflammatory effect and is a top choice for chronic sinusitis.
6. Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoazole. This medication is regarded as a first-line antibiotic against sinusitis and includes Bactrim and Septra. This family of antibiotics may be prescribed for children and adults, and is less expensive than amoxicillin. It is indicated for mild sinusitis and those who are allergic to penicillin. The antibiotic is contraindicated for patients who are allergic to sulfa-drugs and to seafood and iodine. Its best feature is its resistance to strains of streptococcus bacteria.
7. Tetracyclines. This family of antibiotics includes doxycycline and minocycline. Tetracyclines work against bacteria by inhibiting their growth. The side effects associated with the use of Tetracyclines are burning sensation in the throat, skin reaction to sunlight and staining of the teeth.
8. Vancomycin. The antibiotic vancomycin, available under the brand name Vancocin, is also effective against Staphyloccoccus aureus infections which are resistant to methicillin. It is a last resort sinus infection antibiotic, which is applied only after all other antibiotics have failed to stop or control the infection. Its function is to interfere with the cell wall activity of Gram-positive bacteria. Click here to find out what is the best sinus nasal spray.